WOMEN

Leopoldine Kulka

1872 – 1920 Austria

Austrian publicist and writer. At an early age, she joined the General Austrian Women‘s Association (GAWA) and became its Vice-President in 1911. She was concerned about war and wrote regularly for political women’s magazines.

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Yella Hertzka

1873 – 1948 Austria

Suffragette, publisher, gardener and founder of the first Higher Gardening School for girls in Austria. From 1921 onwards, she was the President of the Austrian section of the Women‘s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). In 1921, she organized the 3rd International Congress of the Women’s League in Vienna.

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Jeanne Mélin

1877 – 1964 France

Mélin was a French pacifist, feminist, writer and politician. She advocated for peace between France and Germany and for women’s suffrage. She was a presidential candidate in France in 1947.

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Gabriele Duchêne

1870 – 1954 France

She was a French militant feminist, trade unionist, pacifist, and antifascist. She worked together with the communist party and other progressive movements.

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Anita Augspurg

1857 – 1943 Germany

She is Germany’s first woman lawyer and activist of the radical bourgeoise movement. She fought for equal rights which means in a feminist perspective to give a priority to voting rights and political participation with the aim to stop war and violence. Together with Heymann, Augspurg requested the expulsion of Hitler in 1923. She died in exile in Switzerland.
⇒ Kurzbiografie im Digitalen Deutschen Frauenarchiv (DDF)

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Gertrud Baer

1890 – 1981 Germany

Jewish women’s rights and peace activist, and co-chair of WILPF International until 1947. Her mother was already engaged with the British suffragette movement. She was the first WILPF consultant to the United Nations.

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Lida Gustava Heymann

1868 – 1943 Germany

Co-founder of the abolitionist movement in Germany and the “Society for Women‘s Suffrage“. Published together with Augspurg the newspaper “Frau im Staat” which presented pacifist, feminist and democratic positions on various subjects.

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Dr. Aletta Jacobs

1854 – 1929 Holland

First woman medical student in Holland. As women’s activist, she organized the 1st Women’s Peace Congress in the Hague in 1915 and served as Vice-President of WILPF for many years.  She tried successfully to introduce women suffrage in Holland as a stipulation for peace and went to the Zurich Congress in 1919.

Mien van Wulfften Palthe-Broese van Groenou

1875 – 1960 Holland

Dutch feminist and pacifist; activist for women’s right to vote. Engaged with the first WILPF Congress in the Hague 1915. Went in 1919 to Zurich to discuss how to avoid future wars.

Rosa Genoni

1867 – 1954  Italy

Highly innovative designer, staunch defender of the rights of garment workers and advocate of the rights of women in particular. As WW1 broke out, she became an active participant in the Int. Women’s Peace movement, participated in the congresses in the Hague and Zurich, supported refugees.

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Maria Dulębianka

1861 – 1919 Poland

Famous painter and women’s activist in Poland and 1st
candidate to parliament (1908) when voting rights for women were not yet confirmed.

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Władysława Habicht

1867 – 1964 Poland

Worked in a post office and struggled for women’s rights. Co-founder of the women’s housing cooperative (1904). After restoring of the Polish state in 1918, she was candidate of the women’s committee for parliamentary election.

Clara Campoamor Rodríguez

1888 – 1972 Spain

Lawyer and feminist, internationalist, pacifist politician, was one of the first women MP’s in Spain, 1931-33, Director of Public Assistance in the Government, 1933-1934. Spanish women owe her their right to vote. In 1931, struggled alone for women‘s suffrage and after a hard debate in the Spanish Parliament she won it. Spain was the first Latin country to obtain it.

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Clara Ragaz

1874 – 1957 Switzerland

Swiss activist for women rights and peace; sees the interdependency of the social question, women’s rights and war and peace and a need for radical, but non-violent changes in the economic for the needs of the people, justice and equality.

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Charlotte Despard

1844 – 1939 United Kingdom

British writer, suffragist, and founder of Women´s Freedom League. She oganized civil disobedience actions and tax resistance.

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CHRYSTAL MACMILLAN

1872 – 1937 United Kingdom

Suffragist, peace activist, and barrister. She was the first woman to graduate in sciences from Edinburgh University. She worked nationally and internationally all her life for women´s equality.

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Rosa Manus

1881 – 1942 Netherlands

Dutch Feminist and Peace Activist. Vice-President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (ISWA) and co-founder of the Women’s League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). Leading officer of the Women’s Disarmament Committee of the Liaison Committe of the Women’s International organisations that started in 1931. Founding president of The International Women’s Archives in Amsterdam.

She was murdered by the Nazis in Bernburg

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THORA DAUGAARD

1874 – 1951 Denmark

Trained translator and editor, active suffragist in Danish Women Suffrage Societies Federation (DKV). Established a Danish Section of WILPF (KILFF) and, in 1916, the Danish women’s Peace chain, which successfully recruited women of the working class. In 1919, she became the editor of a new women’s magazine.

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COR RAMOND-HIRSCHMANN

1871-1957, Holland

Co-organizer of the International Congress of Women in 1915 in The Hague, elected president of the Dutch branch of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace (ICWPP). She was on the delegation to heads of state which presented resolutions to Scandinavia and Russia. She formed the group speaking to peaceful nations. In 1919 she travelled to the ICWPP meeting in Zurich, became international secretary of the WILPF in 1921 and served as secretary or adjoint secretary to 1936. She hosted WILPF Emergency conference for “new peace” 1922  in the Hague.

ZOFIA DASYNSKA-GOLINSKA

(1860-1934) Poland

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HEDWIG KÄMPFER

1889 – 1947 Germany

She was an activist before and during the revolution in Munich 1918/1919. She worked as a clerk in the labour union and was co-founder of Munichs USPD, the pacifist party that split up with the Socialist Party SPD.  When all revolutionary men were in jail in 1918 she (and other women) held an important part in the party, also later on. She organized political education for socialist women. 1920 – 1924 she was member of  the city council of Munich. During the „Drittes Reich“ she lived in France, was detained for five years in a camp and died in Paris

IDA VASSALINI

1891-1953 Italy

Italian Poet and Translator. Daughter of Bartolomeo V. and Itala Abati. Became early interested in classical and oriental philology, in philosophy and poetry. Studies at Padova and Milano. Worked as teacher in Milano. Refused from joining the fascist association and almost lost her position. After the war living in Verona. She spent ten years in translating the Gītā, in last years worked on the Dhammapada. Active in cultural, pacifist and international organizations.

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VIRGINIA PIATTI TANGO

1869-1958 Italy

Virginia Tango-Piatti (AKA Agar) born Florence, Italy September 21, 1867 (d. 1958). Feminist poet and writer. Pacifist, anti-militarist, and anti-fascist; lifelong proponent of nonviolence. Opposed Libya War, 1912; spoke openly against World War I, 1915. Published memoirs as volunteer nurse, 1917. Co-founded Italian WILPF. Exiled, 1933-39; arrested and sent to concentration camp, 1943.

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Ada Salter

1866 – 1942

Ada Salter was an English social reformer, environmentalist, pacifist and a Quaker elder. She has been described as the pioneer of ethical socialism with her radical and revolutionary ideas apparent from an early age

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Annabelle Huth-Jackson

1870-1944, United Kingdom

During the First World War Annabelle Huth Jackson, called Tiny became a vociferous pacifist, a member of the Independent Labour Party. She attended a mass rally in the Albert Hall to celebrate the Russian Revolution in 1917.  Unlike most early Women’s International League (WIL) women whose activism developed from the suffrage movement, Tiny described herself as ”passionately anti-suffrage”...

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EMMELINE PETHICK-LAWRENCE
1867-1954

 

With the outbreak of war in 1914 Emmeline became increasingly involved with the search for peace.  She was one of only three women from Britain to make their way to the Women’ Peace Congress in the Hague in 1915 and subsequently became honorary treasurer of the Women’s International League of Great Britain which came out of the Congress....

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Ethel Williams

1863-1948, United Kingdom

Ethel Williams was a doctor and the first woman to found a general medical practice in Newcastle upon Tyne.  A suffragist, pacifist, educationalist and social welfare campaigner, she was a founding member of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)

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GERTRUDE EATON

1864-1939, United Kingdom

Though much less well known than other female political activists of the early twentieth century, Gertrude Eaton made significant contributions not only to the campaign for women’s vote, but also to the issue of penal reform. It was thanks to her lobbying efforts that penal reform was put on the agenda of the League of Nations, providing the groundwork for the United Nations’ standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners, adopted in 1955.

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HELEN CRAWFURD (nee Jack)

1877 – 1954 United Kingdom

...a woman who herself could justly be called remarkable. A bold and effective campaigner, she was (as we say in Scotland) a bonnie fechter for women’s rights.

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HELENA MARIA LUCY SWANWICK

1864–1939, United Kingdom

Helena Swanwick, suffragist, pacifist, author, and delegate to the League of Nations Assembly from 1924, is an example of a woman operating confidently on the international stage and enjoying significant political influence at a time when women in many nations did not have the right to vote or stand for elections.

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THEODORA MARY WILSON

1865 – 1947 United Kingdom

...Theodora was part of this network of Quakers taking action locally and internationally in response to the deteriorating conditions and extreme suffering caused by the war. The Quakers had been focused since the start of the war on the need for a peace to be negotiated that would not lead to further war...

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GERTRUDE RUSSELL (Hon. Mrs Rollo Russell)

1865 -1942 United Kingdom

Gertrude Russell was Honorary Secretary of the Kensington Branch of the WIL, and the EC appointed her to the International Committee of Women After the War which was established in 1917.

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ANNOT ROBINSON

1874-1925, United Kingdom

Organiser for the Women’s Labour League (WLL), in the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS),  outspoken against the war on a number of public platforms, active in the development of the local branches of Women’s International League for Peace & Freedom (WILPF).

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FRIEDA PERLEN

187o-1933, Germany

Born into a Jewish family in Ludwigsburg, she belonged before the First World War to the active women in the Women's suffragette ssociation and from the beginning to the IFFF/WILPF. She lost her son during the First World War, which reinforced her pacifist attitude and action against fascism.

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HELENE STÖCKER

1869-1943, Germany

Co-founder (1905) and chairwoman of the Confederation for Maternity Protection and Sexual Reform, campaigned radically for the equal rights of men and women and for the sexual emancipation of women. In the 1920s, she also traveled to the Soviet Union and was friends with the socialist Clara Zetkin. She participated in all World Peace Conferences
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CONSTANZE HALLGARTEN

1881-1969, Germany

Constanze Hallgarten’s strong commitment for peace was heavily critisized in her conservative bourgeois environment ( Thomas Mann and others) and she was persecuted by extreme right (media). She ended up on the black list of Hitler and had to flee from Germany. She returned in 1955 from the US to Munich and re-founded the local group of WILPF and devoted her life to peace activities.

 

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MARGARETHE LEONORE SELENKA

1860-1923, Germany

Anthropologist and paleontologist, she was a founding member of the German Peace Society, activist for peace all her life long.

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FRANCES HARDCASTLE

1866 – 1941, United Kingdom

Frances’ mathematical achievements are more known than her work on suffrage and pacifism. She was Honorary Secretary of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) under Millicent Fawcett and stated her disagreement with militant methods taken by suffragettes.

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ELLEN WILKINSON

1891 – 1947, United Kingdom

Against the backdrop of WW1, Ellen became disillusioned with the ILP after they changed their anti-militarist stance in the wake of war. Ellen believed that the war was ‘an unjust and imperialist war’ and proclaimed her pacifist stance by joining the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.

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LIDIA SHISMANOVA

1866-1937, Ukraine (Bulgaria)

Shishmanova was a member of the Association of Women with Higher Education, was a founder of the Club of the Bulgarian writers in 1930, and the League of English speakers, Society for Peace and Freedom where she served as the vice-president of the Bulgarian section of the International League for Peace and Freedom. She was also a member of the Bulgarian Women's Union and the Society of Esperanto in Bulgaria...

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KATHLEEN ELIZABETH ROYDS (Innes)
1883-1967

Kathleen was influenced by suffragist ideas and a strong believer in equal rights for women. Women’s rights as well as her views on democracy, internationalism and pacificism seem to have developed through her engagement with wide-ranging literature and the study of history. However, it was her experience at the start of the First World War that changed the course of her life, and she became more involved in politics and peace activism.

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CARME KARR ALFONSETTI
1865- 1943; Spain

Journalist, writer and feminist involved in the defense of peace since the beginning of the 20th century. She was a pioneer for peace: the only woman to sign the manifesto of Spanish intellectuals against World War I, and also the first woman who gave a lecture at the Barcelona Ateneo.

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ISABEL OYARZÁBAL-SMITH (Isabel de Palencia)

1878 - 1974, Spain

Writer, translator, lecturer and journalist, she was also Inspector of Labour and became Ambassador. Thanks to her knowledge of several foreign languages she was able to establish an important web of international relations.

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MARGALIDA COMAS CAMPS

1892- 1972, Spain

Doctor in Biology, she was one among the first women professors in Spain and an example of the links of solidarity established among women of WILPF. While researching in London, 1920-21, she attended Bedford College for Women where she met Quaker feminist Edith M. Pye, who later became president of WILPF (1933-34)

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ZABEL YESSAYAN

1878 - 1942/43, Armenia

Born in Constantinople, Zabel Yessayan crisscrossed continents during the tumultuous years of the rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid and the disastrous WW1, writing novels, providing relief for victims, speaking out against injustice, and bearing witness to gross violations of human rights. She escaped her would be captors in 1915 during the Armenian Genocide only to be apprehended 22 years later by Stalin’s henchmen after defending her fellow writers in Soviet Armenia. Accused of being a French spy, she survived six years in prison while all along claiming her innocence.

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